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MINERALS IRON ORES AND CONCENTRATES Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in color from dark grey, bright yellow, deep purple, to rusty red. The iron itself is usually found in the form of magnetite (Fe3O4), hematite (Fe2O3), goethite (FeO(OH)), limonite (FeO(OH).n(H2O)) or siderite (FeCO3). MAGNETITE Magnetite is best known for its property that it is strongly attracted to magnets. Some forms of Magnetite from specific localities are in fact themselves magnets. This form is known as Lodestone, and is the only mineral that acts as a natural magnet. Although its magnetism is weak, it is strong enough to attract large nails. Due to its magnetic properties, small iron particles are often found clinging to its surfaces. Some dealers intentionally place metallic filings on a Lodestone to demonstrate its magnetism. HEMATITE Hematite is one of the most common minerals. The color of most red and brown rock, such as sandstone, is caused by small amounts of Hematite. It is also be responsible for the red color of many minerals such as Garnet, Spinel, and to some extent, Ruby. Non-crystalline forms of Hematite may be transformations of the mineral Limonite that lost water, possibly due to heat.

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MINERALS ZINC ORES AND CONCENTRATES Zinc is the 23rd most abundant element in the earth's crust. Sphalerite, zinc sulfide, is and has been the principal ore mineral in the world. Zinc is necessary to modern living, and, in tonnage produced, stands fourth among all metals in world production - being exceeded only by iron, aluminum, and copper. Zinc uses range from metal products to rubber and medicines.  About three-fourths of zinc used is consumed as metal, mainly as a coating to protect iron and steel from corrosion (galvanized metal), as alloying metal to make bronze and brass, as zinc-based die casting alloy, and as rolled zinc. The remaining one-fourth is consumed as zinc compounds mainly by the rubber, chemical, paint, and agricultural industries.  Zinc is also a necessary element for proper growth and development of humans, animals, and plants; it is the second most common trace metal, after iron, naturally found in the human body. SPHALERITE Sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc. It consists largely of zinc sulfide in crystalline form but almost always contains variable iron. When iron content is high it is an opaque black variety, marmatite. It is usually found in association with galena, pyrite, and other sulfides along with calcite, dolomite, and fluorite. Miners have also been known to refer to sphalerite as zinc blende and black-jack.

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MINERALS COPPER ORES AND CONCENTRATES Copper (German: Kupfer, French: cuivre) is a group 18 transition metal. Because copper was first found in Cyprus, it is thought that it’s names in all languages are derived from Cyprium. Main copper quarries include Maden in Elazığ (Ergani copper smelter), Murgul in Artvin (Gbkta) and Kure in Kastamonu. New copper deposits have been discovered in Rize, Çayeli.

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MINERALS LEAD ORES AND CONCENTRATES Lead is a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol ,atomic number 82. Lead is a soft and malleable metal, which is regarded as a heavy metal and poor metal. Metallic lead has a bluish-white color after being freshly cut, but it soon tarnishes to a dull grayish color when exposed to air. Lead has a shiny chrome-silver luster when it is melted into a liquid. Lead is used in building construction, lead-acid batteries, bullets and shot, weights, as part of solders, pewters, fusible alloys, and as a radiation shield. Lead has the highest atomic number of all of the stable elements, although the next higher element, bismuth, has a half-life that is so long (much longer than the age of the universe) that it can be considered stable. Its four stable isotopes have 82 protons, a magic number in the nuclear shell model of atomic nuclei. GALENA Galena is a lead sulfide mineral commonly found in hydrothermal veins; or as fracture filings, cavity fillings and replacements in limestone. Lesser amounts are found in many igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. Galena is the primary ore of lead and is often mined for its silver content (silver substitutes for lead within the galena structure). Its perfect cleavage, silver color and very high specific gravity make it very easy to identify. Galena is the most important ore of lead. Most lead is consumed in making batteries, however, significant amounts are also used to make lead sheets, pipe and shot. It is also used to make low-melting-point alloys. Its use as a pigment has declined as has its use in making solder.

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MINERALS CHROMIUM ORES Chromium is a metalic element. Because it is very hard and has a melt­ ing point of 1857 °C, it is used to increase the hardness of metals and in the manufacturing of armoured vehi­ cles. It is quarried in Erzurum, Adana, Elazığ, Mugla, Bursa and Eskişehir.

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MINERALS PRECIOUS METAL ORES (GOLD,SILVER,PLATINUM) GOLD A native element and precious metal, Gold has long been prized for its beauty, resistance to chemical attack and workability. As it is found as a native element, has a relatively low melting point (1063 degrees Celsius) and is malleable, it has been used by mankind for thousands of years. Gold is used as a standard for international currency and is also widely used in jewelry, electronics (where its superb properties as a conductor help offset its tremendous cost), dentistry and in photographic processes. SILVER Silver is one of the most famous precious metals, and has been used for ornamental purposes since the earliest of times. Most silver is extracted from silver ores, but considerable amounts are mined from Native Silver. Silver can be found pure, but is usually mixed with small amounts of gold, arsenic, and antimony. A natural alloy of gold and silver is known as Electrum, and is usually classified as a variety of Gold. Silver has many unique physical properties that give it very special status. Silver is the best conductor of electricity, is the second most malleable and ductile metal, and is in greater abundance than all other precious metals with similar properties. Due to its unique properties and intrinsic beauty, it is extensively used industrially and as ornaments.   PLATINIUM Platinum is the rarest and most expensive of the popular precious metals. It is much rarer then Gold. Due to its rarity and value, it is not readily available to mineral collectors and is seldom represented in in all but the highest-end mineral collections. Platinum is an exquisite precious metal used in jewelry as ring settings, bracelets, and necklaces. Platinum jewelry is rare, beautiful, and durable, and is therefore highly regarded. Native Platinum is the most significant source of the element platinum, although considerable quantities are also mined from the rare platinum arsenide mineral Sperrylite. The rare metals iridium, osmium, rhodium, and palladium are almost exclusively mined together with platinum in platinum deposits.