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MINERALS NATURAL GRAPHITE Graphite is rather common, but fine crystals are rare. Most Graphite mining areas produce enormous quantities from a single or several large Graphite veins. Graphite has the same chemical composition as the mineral Diamond, but the atomic structure of Graphite and Diamond is entirely different. This causes almost opposite characteristics in their physical properties. Much care should be given to Graphite specimens, especially thin crystals, which are fragile. It is very hard to wash crystals as they peel off and get ruined. Graphite will also smudge on its surface, and can get worn out if it is moved around too much. Graphite also smudges the hand if handled, and will smudge a paper or cardboard box if it is stored in one. The "lead" in pencils is in fact composed of a mixture of Graphite and clay. There is no lead in pencils at all. Much of the commercially mined Graphite is used for pencil fillings. Its main function, however, is as a lubricant. It has many electrical uses, primarily because it is the only common nonmetal that is a good conductor of electricity.
MINERALS DOLOMITE is used as an ornamental stone, a concrete aggregate, a source of magnesium oxide and in the Pidgeon process for the production of magnesium. It is an important petroleum reservoir rock, and serves as the host rock for large strata-bound Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) ore deposits of base metals such as lead, zinc, and copper. Where calcite limestone is uncommon or too costly, dolomite is sometimes used in its place as a flux for the smelting of iron and steel. Large quantities of processed dolomite are used in the production of float glass.
MINERALS MAGNESITE Magnesite is a compound of magnesium, its chemical formula is MgC03, and its color varies between white, yellow, grey and brown. It is found in nature as cryptocrystalline and crystalline. It is a tough and complex mineral, and is an alteration product of serpentinite or similar rock types. There are magnesite reserves in Konya, Balıkesir, Bursa, Bilecik, Ankara, Kütahya, Eskişehir and Erzincan.