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MINERALS IRON ORES AND CONCENTRATES Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in color from dark grey, bright yellow, deep purple, to rusty red. The iron itself is usually found in the form of magnetite (Fe3O4), hematite (Fe2O3), goethite (FeO(OH)), limonite (FeO(OH).n(H2O)) or siderite (FeCO3). MAGNETITE Magnetite is best known for its property that it is strongly attracted to magnets. Some forms of Magnetite from specific localities are in fact themselves magnets. This form is known as Lodestone, and is the only mineral that acts as a natural magnet. Although its magnetism is weak, it is strong enough to attract large nails. Due to its magnetic properties, small iron particles are often found clinging to its surfaces. Some dealers intentionally place metallic filings on a Lodestone to demonstrate its magnetism. HEMATITE Hematite is one of the most common minerals. The color of most red and brown rock, such as sandstone, is caused by small amounts of Hematite. It is also be responsible for the red color of many minerals such as Garnet, Spinel, and to some extent, Ruby. Non-crystalline forms of Hematite may be transformations of the mineral Limonite that lost water, possibly due to heat.
MINERALS ALUMINIUM ORES AND CONCENTRATES Aluminum is the second most abundant metallic element in the Earth's crust after silicon, yet it is a comparatively new industrial metal that has been produced in commercial quantities for just over 100 years. It weighs about one-third as much as steel or copper; is malleable, ductile, and easily machined and cast; and has excellent corrosion resistance and durability. Measured either in quantity or value, aluminum's use exceeds that of any other metal except iron, and it is important in virtually all segments of the world economy. Some of the many uses for aluminum are in transportation (automobiles, airplanes, trucks, railcars, marine vessels, etc.), packaging (cans, foil, etc.), construction (windows, doors, siding, etc), consumer durables (appliance s, cooking utensils, etc.), electrical transmission lines, machinery, and many other applications. BAUXITE Bauxite is not a mineral. It is a rock formed from a laterite soil that has been severely leached of silica and other soluble materials in a wet tropical or subtropical climate. It is the primary ore of aluminum. Almost all of the aluminum that has ever been produced has been extracted from bauxite.
MINERALS MANGANESE ORES AND CONCENTRATES Steel becomes harder when it is alloyed with manganese. It has similar applications when alloyed with aluminum and copper. Hardened steel is important in the manufacture of construction materials like I-beams (24% of manganese consumption), machinery (14% of manganese consumption), and transportation (13% of manganese consumption).Manganese dioxide is used to: manufacture ferroalloys; manufacture dry cell batteries (it's a depolarizer); to "decolorize" glass; to prepare some chemicals, like oxygen and chlorine; and to dry black paints. Manganese sulfate (MnSO4) is used as a chemical intermediate and as a micronutrient in animal feeds and plant fertilizers. Manganese metal is used as a brick and ceramic colorant, in copper and aluminum alloys, and as a chemical oxidizer and catalyst. Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) is used as a bactericide and algaecide in water and wastewater treatment, and as an oxidant in organic chemical synthesis.